Compared to other parts of the world, Canada is a relatively safe place to visit. Vaccinations are required only if coming from an endemic area. That said, wherever you are traveling, carry a medical kit that includes bandages, insect repellent, sunscreen, antiseptic, antibiotics, and water- purification tablets. Good first-aid kits are available at most camping shops. Health care in Canada is mostly dealt with at a provincial level.
Taking out a travel-insurance policy is a sensible precaution because hospital and medical charges start at around $1,000 per day. Copies of prescriptions should be brought to Canada for any medicines already prescribed.
Although Vancouver  and Victoria  are generally safer than U.S. cities of the same size, the same safety tips apply there as elsewhere in the world. Tourists, unused to their surroundings and generally carrying valuables such as cameras and credit cards, tend to be easy targets for thieves. You can reduce the risk of being robbed by using common sense. First and foremost in Vancouver, avoid East Hastings Street, especially at night. It is known as one of the seediest areas in all of Canada, so you should catch a bus or cab between downtown and Chinatown to avoid this area. Wherever you are, avoid traveling or using ATMs at night, try to blend in with the crowd by walking with a purpose (be discreet if reading a map out in public), and don’t wear expensive jewelry.
Giardiasis, also known as beaver fever, is a real concern for those heading into the backcountry. It’s caused by an intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, that lives in lakes, rivers, and streams. Once the parasite is ingested, its effects, although not instantaneous, can be dramatic: Severe diarrhea, cramps, and nausea are the most common symptoms. Preventive measures should always be taken, including boiling all water for at least 10 minutes, treating all water with iodine, or filtering all water using a filter with a pore size small enough to block the giardia cysts.
Travel to Vancouver  and Victoria  in winter is relatively easy, with snowfall only rarely falling in these cities. Traveling beyond the coast during winter months should not be undertaken lightly. Before setting out in a vehicle, check antifreeze levels, and always carry a spare tire and blankets or sleeping bags. Frostbite is a potential hazard, especially when cold temperatures are combined with high winds (a combination known as windchill). Most often, frostbite leaves a numbing, bruised sensation, and the skin turns white. Exposed areas of skin, especially the nose and ears, are most susceptible.
Hypothermia occurs when the body fails to produce heat as fast as it loses it. It can strike at any time of the year but is more common during cooler months. Cold weather, combined with hunger, fatigue, and dampness, creates a recipe for disaster. Symptoms are not always apparent to the victim. The early signs are numbness, shivering, slurring of words, dizzy spells, and, in extreme cases, violent behavior, unconsciousness, and even death. The best way to dress for the cold is in layers, including a waterproof outer layer. Most important, wear headgear. The best treatment is to get the victim out of the cold, replace wet clothing with dry, slowly give hot liquids and sugary foods, and place the victim in a sleeping bag. Warming too quickly can lead to heart attacks.